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A Review of Street Drugs, Part 1

Upon conclusion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Understand the scope of alcohol and cocaine use and their effects on ED visits; 
  • Comprehend the various routes of administration and effects of alcohol ingestion;
  • Demonstrate knowledge of cocaine use and overdose interventions;
  • Understand recent ‘designer drugs’ and chemically modified narcotics. 


1. World Drug Report 2019,

2. Lerner BH. A Case That Shook Medicine. Washington Post, 2006 Nov 28,

3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol facts and statistics, 

4. Glatter R. The dangers of “smoking” alcohol. Forbes, 2013. 

5. Rose B. Seven insane ways to get drunk without drinking. Gizmodo, 2012 Jul 6,

6. Bosmia AN, Griessenauer CJ, Tubbs RS. Vodka eyeballing: A potential cause of ocular injuries. J Inj Violence Res, 2014; 6(2): 93–4.

7. UpToDate. Ethanol Intoxication in Adults, 

8. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT. Clubgoers and their trendy cocktails: Implications of mixing caffeine into alcohol on information processing and subjective reports of intoxication. Exper Clin Psychopharm, 2006; 14(4): 450–8.

9. Cleary K, Levine DA, Hoffman RS. Adolescents and young adults presenting to the emergency department intoxicated from a caffeinated alcoholic beverage: A case series. Ann Emerg Med, 2012; 59(1): 67–9.

10. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT, Maloney SF, Stamates AL. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone. Psychol Addict Behav, 2017; 31(2): 154–61.

11. McKeever A. 13 Ways to Get Drunk Without Actually Drinking. Eater,

12. Lee KC, Ladizinski B, Federman DG. Complications associated with use of levamisole-contaminated cocaine: An emerging public health challenge. Mayo Clin Proc, 2012; 87(6): 581–6.

13. The Dangers of Using Heroin with Cocaine (Speedball),

14. UpToDate. Cocaine: Acute Intoxication, 

15. UpToDate. Cocaine Use Disorder in Adults: Epidemiology, Pharmacology, Clinical Manifestations, Medical Consequences, and Diagnosis, 

16. Fantegrossi WE, Moran JH, Radominska-Pandya A, Prather PL. Distinct pharmacology and metabolism of K2 synthetic cannabinoids compared to Δ9-THC: Mechanism underlying greater toxicity? Life Sciences, 2014; 97(1): 45–54.

17. Rosenbaum CD, Carreiro SP, Babu KM. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), Kratom, salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. J Med Toxicol, 2012; 8(1): 15–32. 

18. Burgess C, O’Donohoe A, Gill M. Agony and ecstasy: A review of MDMA effects and toxicity. Eur Psychiatry, 2000; 15(5): 287–94. 

19. Hall AP, Henry JA. Acute toxic effects of ‘ecstasy’ (MDMA) and related compounds: Overview of pathophysiology and clinical management. Br J Anaesth, 2006; 96(6): 678–85. 

20. UpToDate. MDMA (Ecstasy) Intoxication, 

21. UpToDate. Serotonin Syndrome (Serotonin Toxicity), 

22. Spiller HA, Ryan ML, Weston RG, Jansen J. Clinical experience with and analytical confirmation of “bath salts” and “legal highs” (synthetic cathinones) in the United States. Clin Toxicol (Phila), 2011; 49(6): 499–505. 

23. Crespi C. Flakka-Induced prolonged psychosis. Case Rep Psychiatry, 2016; 3460849. 

24. California Poison Control System. Krokodil,

25. Lawn W, Barratt M, Williams M, Horne A, Winstock A. The NBOMe hallucinogenic drug series: Patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects in a large international sample. J Psychopharmacol, 2014; 28(8): 780–8. 

26. Palamar JJ, Le A. Trends in DMT and other tryptamine use among young adults in the United States. Am J Addict, 2018; 27(7): 578–85. 

27. Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Uhlenhuth EH, Kellner R. Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1994 Feb; 51(2): 98–108.

28. Strassman RJ. Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Behav Brain Res, 1996; 73(1-2): 121–4.

29. Toxicology Data Network. N,N-dimethyltryptamine Human Health Effects, 

30. Madsen GR, Petersen TS, Dalhoff KP. NBOMe hallucinogenic drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre. Dan Med J, 2017; 64(6): A5386.

31. Keilman J. Chronic pain patients say opioid crackdown is hurting them. Chicago Tribune, 2017 Jun 5;

32. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opioid overdose crisis,

33. Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. The changing face of heroin use in the United States: A retrospective analysis of the past 50 years. JAMA Psychiatry, 2014; 71(7): 821–6. 

  • Format
  • Credits
  • After passing the course, your certificate will be available for download here.