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A Review of Street Drugs, Part 1

Upon conclusion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Understand the scope of alcohol and cocaine use and their effects on ED visits; 
  • Comprehend the various routes of administration and effects of alcohol ingestion;
  • Demonstrate knowledge of cocaine use and overdose interventions;
  • Understand recent ‘designer drugs’ and chemically modified narcotics. 

References

1. World Drug Report 2019, https://wdr.unodc.org/wdr2019/

2. Lerner BH. A Case That Shook Medicine. Washington Post, 2006 Nov 28, www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/11/24/AR2006112400985.html.

3. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Alcohol facts and statistics, www.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/brochures-and-fact-sheets/alcohol-facts-and-statistics. 

4. Glatter R. The dangers of “smoking” alcohol. Forbes, 2013. www.forbes.com/sites/robertglatter/2013/06/21/the-dangers-of-smoking-alcohol/. 

5. Rose B. Seven insane ways to get drunk without drinking. Gizmodo, 2012 Jul 6, http://gizmodo.com/5923902/seven-insane-ways-to-get-drunk-without-drinking.

6. Bosmia AN, Griessenauer CJ, Tubbs RS. Vodka eyeballing: A potential cause of ocular injuries. J Inj Violence Res, 2014; 6(2): 93–4.

7. UpToDate. Ethanol Intoxication in Adults, www.uptodate.com/contents/ethanol-intoxication-in-adults. 

8. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT. Clubgoers and their trendy cocktails: Implications of mixing caffeine into alcohol on information processing and subjective reports of intoxication. Exper Clin Psychopharm, 2006; 14(4): 450–8.

9. Cleary K, Levine DA, Hoffman RS. Adolescents and young adults presenting to the emergency department intoxicated from a caffeinated alcoholic beverage: A case series. Ann Emerg Med, 2012; 59(1): 67–9.

10. Marczinski CA, Fillmore MT, Maloney SF, Stamates AL. Faster self-paced rate of drinking for alcohol mixed with energy drinks versus alcohol alone. Psychol Addict Behav, 2017; 31(2): 154–61.

11. McKeever A. 13 Ways to Get Drunk Without Actually Drinking. Eater, www.eater.com/2012/11/27/6531095/13-ways-to-get-drunk-without-actually-drinking.

12. Lee KC, Ladizinski B, Federman DG. Complications associated with use of levamisole-contaminated cocaine: An emerging public health challenge. Mayo Clin Proc, 2012; 87(6): 581–6.

13. RehabCenter.net. The Dangers of Using Heroin with Cocaine (Speedball), www.rehabcenter.net/dangers-heroin-cocaine-speedball/.

14. UpToDate. Cocaine: Acute Intoxication, www.uptodate.com/contents/cocaine-acute-intoxication. 

15. UpToDate. Cocaine Use Disorder in Adults: Epidemiology, Pharmacology, Clinical Manifestations, Medical Consequences, and Diagnosis, www.uptodate.com/contents/cocaine-use-disorder-in-adults-epidemiology-pharmacology-clinical-manifestations-medical-consequences-and-diagnosis. 

16. Fantegrossi WE, Moran JH, Radominska-Pandya A, Prather PL. Distinct pharmacology and metabolism of K2 synthetic cannabinoids compared to Δ9-THC: Mechanism underlying greater toxicity? Life Sciences, 2014; 97(1): 45–54.

17. Rosenbaum CD, Carreiro SP, Babu KM. Here today, gone tomorrow…and back again? A review of herbal marijuana alternatives (K2, spice), synthetic cathinones (bath salts), Kratom, salvia divinorum, methoxetamine, and piperazines. J Med Toxicol, 2012; 8(1): 15–32. 

18. Burgess C, O’Donohoe A, Gill M. Agony and ecstasy: A review of MDMA effects and toxicity. Eur Psychiatry, 2000; 15(5): 287–94. 

19. Hall AP, Henry JA. Acute toxic effects of ‘ecstasy’ (MDMA) and related compounds: Overview of pathophysiology and clinical management. Br J Anaesth, 2006; 96(6): 678–85. 

20. UpToDate. MDMA (Ecstasy) Intoxication, www.uptodate.com/contents/mdma-ecstasy-intoxication#. 

21. UpToDate. Serotonin Syndrome (Serotonin Toxicity), www.uptodate.com/contents/serotonin-syndrome-serotonin-toxicity. 

22. Spiller HA, Ryan ML, Weston RG, Jansen J. Clinical experience with and analytical confirmation of “bath salts” and “legal highs” (synthetic cathinones) in the United States. Clin Toxicol (Phila), 2011; 49(6): 499–505. 

23. Crespi C. Flakka-Induced prolonged psychosis. Case Rep Psychiatry, 2016; 3460849. 

24. California Poison Control System. Krokodil, https://calpoison.org/news/krokodil.

25. Lawn W, Barratt M, Williams M, Horne A, Winstock A. The NBOMe hallucinogenic drug series: Patterns of use, characteristics of users and self-reported effects in a large international sample. J Psychopharmacol, 2014; 28(8): 780–8. 

26. Palamar JJ, Le A. Trends in DMT and other tryptamine use among young adults in the United States. Am J Addict, 2018; 27(7): 578–85. 

27. Strassman RJ, Qualls CR, Uhlenhuth EH, Kellner R. Dose-response study of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in humans. II. Subjective effects and preliminary results of a new rating scale. Arch Gen Psychiatry, 1994 Feb; 51(2): 98–108.

28. Strassman RJ. Human psychopharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Behav Brain Res, 1996; 73(1-2): 121–4.

29. Toxicology Data Network. N,N-dimethyltryptamine Human Health Effects, https://toxnet.nlm.nih.gov/cgi-bin/sis/search/a?dbs+hsdb:@term+@DOCNO+8017. 

30. Madsen GR, Petersen TS, Dalhoff KP. NBOMe hallucinogenic drug exposures reported to the Danish Poison Information Centre. Dan Med J, 2017; 64(6): A5386.

31. Keilman J. Chronic pain patients say opioid crackdown is hurting them. Chicago Tribune, 2017 Jun 5; www.chicagotribune.com/lifestyles/health/ct-opioid-patients-backlash-met-20170603-story.html.

32. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Opioid overdose crisis, www.drugabuse.gov/drugs-abuse/opioids/opioid-crisis.

33. Cicero TJ, Ellis MS, Surratt HL, Kurtz SP. The changing face of heroin use in the United States: A retrospective analysis of the past 50 years. JAMA Psychiatry, 2014; 71(7): 821–6. 

  • Format
    Article
  • Credits
    .5
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