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A Review of Street Drugs, Part 2

Upon conclusion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Understand the scope of alcohol and cocaine use and their effects on ED visits; 
  • Comprehend the various routes of administration and effects of alcohol ingestion;
  • Demonstrate knowledge of cocaine use and overdose interventions;
  • Understand recent ‘designer drugs’ and chemically modified narcotics. 


  1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Commonly abused drugs charts,
  2. PubChem. Desomorphine,
  3. Stanford School of Medicine. Palliative Care, Equivalency Table,
  4. Compound Interest. A Brief Guide to Common Painkillers,
  5. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Fentanyl,
  6. Chua SM, Lee TS. Abuse of prescription buprenorphine, regulatory controls and the role of the primary physician. Ann Acad Med Singapore, 2006; 35(7): 492–5.
  7. U.S. Drug Test Centers. Suboxone-Buprenorphine Drug Testing,
  8. UpToDate. Acute Opioid Intoxication in Adults,
  9. Owen DR, Wood DM, Archer JR, Dargan PI. Phenibut (4-amino-3-phenyl-butyric acid): Availability, prevalence of use, desired effects and acute toxicity. Drug Alcohol Rev, 2016; 35(5): 591–6.
  10. Joshi YB, Friend SF, Jimenez B, Steiger LR. Dissociative Intoxication and Prolonged Withdrawal Associated With Phenibut: A Case Report. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 2017; 37(4): 478–80.
  11. O’Connell CW, Schneir AB, Hwang JQ, Cantrell FL. Clinical communication to the editor: phenibut, the appearance of another potentially dangerous product in the United States. Amer J Med, 2014; 127(8): e3–4.
  12. Samokhvalov AV, Paton-Gay CL, Balchand K, et al. Phenibut dependence. Case Reports, 2013; bcr2012008381.
  13. Högberg L, Szabó I, Ruusa J. Psychotic symptoms during phenibut (beta-phenylgamma aminobutyric acid) withdrawal. J Substance Use, 2013; 18(4): 335–8.
  14. Downes MA, Berling IL, Mostafa A, et al. Acute behavioural disturbance associated with phenibut purchased via an internet supplier. Clinical Toxicology, 2015; 53(7): 636–8.
  15. Villeneuve M. Chronic pain patients say opioid law creates new crisis. US News, 2017 Apr 22;
  16. National Drug Screening, Inc. 10 Panel Drug Test,
  17. Mayo Clinic. Drug testing: An overview of Mayo Clinic tests designed for detecting drug abuse.
  18. Hernandez-Lopez C, Farre M, Roset PN, et al. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (Ecstasy) and alcohol interactions in humans: Psychomotor performance, subjective effects, and pharmacokinetics. J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 2002; 300(1): 236–44.
  19. Alcohol-related drug interactions. Pharmacist’s Letter/Prescriber’s Letter, 2008; 24(1): 240106.
  20. Melton ST. Stirring the pot: Potential drug interactions with marijuana. Medscape,
  21. Sands BF, Ciraulo DA. Cocaine drug-drug interactions. J Clin Psychopharmacol, 1982; 12(1): 49–55.
  22. UpToDate. Ethanol Intoxication in Adults,
  23. Jansson-Nettelbladt E, Meurling S, Petrini B, Sjölin J. Endogenous ethanol fermentation in a child with short bowel syndrome. Acta Paediatr, 2006; 95(4): 502–4.
  24. Dahshan A, Donovan K. Auto-brewery syndrome in a child with short gut syndrome: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr, 2001; 33(2): 214–5.
  25. Welch BT, Coelho Prabhu N, Walkoff L, Trenkner SW. Auto-brewery Syndrome in the Setting of Long-standing Crohn’s Disease: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Crohns Colitis, 2016; 10(12): 1,448–50.
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  • After passing the course, your certificate will be available for download here.