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Excited Delirium: A Case Review

Upon conclusion of this course, students will be able to:

  • Define the hallmarks of excited delirium syndrome;
  • Understand the IMCRASS scoring system of agitation;
  • Differentiate sedation options and their applications;
  • Articulate the symptoms and signs of toxic encephalopathy.


1. DeBard ML, Adler J, Bozeman W, Chan T, et al.; ACEP Excited Delirium Task Force. White Paper Report on Excited Delirium Syndrome. ACEP, 2009;

2. Mash D. Excited Delirium and Sudden Death: A Syndromal Disorder at the Extreme End of the Neuropsychiatric Continuum. Front Physiol, 2016; 7: 435.

3. Pennsylvania Department of Health. Excited Delirium Statewide ALS Protocol (Optional),

4. Clark AK, Wilder CM, Winstanley EL. A systematic review of community opioid overdose prevention and naloxone distribution programs. J Addict Med, 2014 May–Jun; 8(3): 153–63.

5. Farkas A, Lynch MJ, Westover R, et al. Pulmonary Complications of Opioid Overdose Treated With Naloxone. Ann Emerg Med, 2020 Jan; 75(1): 39–48. 

6. Associated Press. Pittsburgh authorities identify 3 who died in suspected mass overdose. NBC News,

7. American College of Medical Toxicology. Ketamine statement, 2020 Sep 28;

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  • After passing the course, your certificate will be available for download here.