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The EMS Suicide Threat

New research finds alarmingly high rates of ideation and risk.


  • Understand the scope and risk of suicide among EMS personnel
  • Identify risk factors and workplace stressors that may contribute to suicidal ideation
  • Describe strategies to support mental health among EMS providers


1. Patterson PD, Weaver MD, Frank RC, et al. Association Between Poor Sleep, Fatigue, and Safety Outcomes in Emergency Medical Services Providers. Prehosp Emerg Care, 2012; 16(1): 86–97.

2. Patterson PD, Buysse DJ, Weaver MD, Clifton W, Yealy DM. Recovery Between Work Shifts Among Emergency Medical Services Clinicians. Prehosp Emerg Care, 2015; 19(3): 365–75.

3. Weaver MD, Patterson D, Fabio A, Moore CG, Freiberg MS, Songer TJ. An Observational Study of Shift Length, Crew Familiary, and Occupational Injury and Illness in Emergency Medical Service Workers. Occup Env Med, 2015; 72(11): 798–804.

4. Alexander DA, Klein S. Ambulance Personnel and Critical Incidents: Impact of Accident and Emergency Work on Mental Health and Emotional Well-being. Br J Psychiatry, 2001; 178: 76–82.

5. Ploeg E, Kleber RJ. Acute and Chronic Job Stressors Among Ambulance Personnel: Predictors of Health Symptoms. Occup Env Med, 2003; 60(Suppl I): i40–6.

6. Crowe RP, Bower JK, Cash RE, Panchal AR, Rodriguez SA, Olivo-Marston SE. Association of Burnout with Workforce-Reducing Factors among EMS Professionals. Prehosp Emerg Care, 2018; 22(2): 229–36.

7. Boffa JW, Stanley IH, Hom MA, et al. PTSD Symptoms and Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Firefighters. J Psychiatr Res, 2017; 84: 277–83.

8. Grevin F. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Ego Defence Mechanisms, and Empathy Among Urban Paramedics. Psychol Rep, 1996; 79: 483–95.

9. Donnelly E. Work-Related Stress and Posttraumatic Stress in Emergency Medical Services. Prehosp Emerg Care, 2012; 16(1): 76–85.

10. Iranmanesh S, Tirgari B, Bardsiri HS. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among Paramedic and Hospital Emergency Personnel in South-East Iran. World J Emerg Med, 2013; 4(1): 26–31.

11. Jonsson A, Segesten K, Mattson B. Post-Traumatic Stress Among Swedish Ambulance Personnel. Emerg Med J, 2003; 20(1): 79–84.

12. Bennett P, Williams Y, Page N, Hood K, Woollard M. Levels of Mental Health Problems Among UK Ambulance Workers. Emerg Med J, 2004; 21(2): 235–6.

13. Fjeldheim CB, Nöthling J, Pretorius K, et al. Trauma Exposure, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and the Effect of Explanatory variables in Paramedic Trainees. BMC Emerg Med, 2014; 14(11): 1–7.

14. Clohessy S, Ehlers A. PTSD Symptoms, Response to Intrusive Memories and Coping in Ambulance Service Workers. Br J Clin Psychol, 1999; 38(Pt 3): 251–65.

15. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Results from the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Findings,

16. Stanley IH, Hom MA, Hagan CR, Joiner TE. Career Prevalence and Correlates of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Firefighters. J Affect Disord, 2015; 187: 163–71.

17. Stanley IH, Hom MA, Joiner TE. A Systematic Review of Suicidal Thoughts and Behaviors Among Police Officers, Firefighters, EMTs, and Paramedics. Clin Psychol Rev, 2016; 44: 25–44.

18. Vigil NH, Grant AR, Perez O, et al. Death by Suicide—The EMS Profession Compared to the General Public. Prehosp Emerg Care, 2018 Sep; 1–6.

19. Newland C, Barber E, Rose M, Young A. Survey Reveals Alarming Rates of EMS Provider Stress & Thoughts of Suicide. J Emerg Med Serv, 2015; 40(10): 30–4.

20. Osman A, Bagge CL, Gutierrez PM, et al. The Suicidal Behaviors Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R): Validation With Clinical and Nonclinical Samples. Assessment, 2001; 8(4): 443–54.

  • Format
  • Duration
    30 min.
  • Credits
    .5 CE
  • After passing the course, your certificate will be available for download here.